Here are the main inheritance patterns: 1. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance: This pattern occurs when a mutation in a gene on one of the autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) is enough to cause a trait or condition. If a parent has the mutation, there is a 50% chance of passing it on to their child. Examples include Huntington's disease and Marfan syndrome. 2. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance: In this pattern, both copies of a gene on the autosomes need to have a mutation for a trait or condition to be present. If both parents are carriers (have one copy of the mutated gene), there is a 25% chance of their child inheriting the condition. Examples include cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia. 3. X-Linked Inheritance: This pattern involves genes located on the X chromosome. Since males have one X chromosome and females have two, X-linked conditions are more common in males. If a mother is a carrier, there is a 50% chance of passing the condition to her sons. Examples include color blindness and hemophilia. 4. Y-Linked Inheritance: This pattern involves genes located on the Y chromosome, which is only present in males. Y-linked conditions are passed directly from father to son. Examples include Y-linked infertility. 5. Mitochondrial Inheritance: This pattern involves genes located in the mitochondria, which are structures within cells that generate energy. Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from the mother to all her children. Both males and females can inherit mitochondrial conditions, but only females can pass them on to their children. Examples include mitochondrial myopathy and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. It's important to note that not all traits or conditions follow these specific patterns, and some may have more complex inheritance patterns. Genetic counselors and healthcare professionals can provide more detailed information based on specific conditions or family histories.